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Long term Effects of a Low carbohydrate Diet

author avatar Dr. Eric Berg 04/16/2024

Low-carb diets have been popular for years. From the Atkins diet to the keto craze, it seems like everyone's jumping on the low-carb bandwagon. But what happens when you cut out carbs for the long haul?

Is it all sunshine and six-pack abs, or are there some severe health risks lurking beneath the surface?

As someone who's been there, done that, and bought the low-carb t-shirt, I want to give you the real scoop on the long-term effects of low-carb carbohydrates in the diet. There is no sugar-coating here (pun intended).

The Foundation of Low-Carb Diets

Low-carb diets have gained popularity in recent years as a way to lose weight and improve overall health. But what exactly is a low-carb diet, and how does it differ from other dietary approaches?

At its core, a low-carb diet limits the intake of carbohydrates, typically found in foods like grains, starchy vegetables, and fruits. Instead, it emphasizes the consumption of protein and healthy fats.

However, many misconceptions surrounding low-carb diets can lead to confusion and hesitation among those considering this approach. Let's look at some of these myths and explore the truth behind low-carb eating.

Debunking Common Misconceptions

One of the most persistent myths about low-carb diets is that they deprive the body of essential nutrients, particularly those related to thyroid function and energy production.

Some believe that glucose, derived from carbohydrates, is necessary for proper thyroid activity and that without it, our bodies cannot function optimally.

However, research has shown that this is not the case. Studies have found that low-carb diets can improve thyroid function by reducing inflammation and improving insulin sensitivity, as noted in this 2019 review published in Nutrients.

Another common misconception is that carbohydrates are essential for energy production. While glucose is the body's preferred energy source, it's not the only one.

When carbohydrates are restricted, the body can efficiently adapt to using fat and ketones for fuel instead.

Essential Nutrients Without Carbs

Critics of low-carb diets often argue that cutting out carbohydrates means missing out on essential vitamins and minerals. However, a well-formulated low-carb diet can provide all the necessary nutrients for optimal health.

Unlike essential amino acids and fatty acids, there is no such thing as an "essential carbohydrate." The body can produce glucose from protein and fat through gluconeogenesis, making carbohydrates a non-essential nutrient.

Moreover, a proper, low-carb diet that includes a variety of non-starchy vegetables, nuts, seeds, and high-quality protein sources can quickly meet the body's micronutrient needs.

Many low-carb foods, such as leafy greens, are incredibly nutrient-dense and provide many vitamins and minerals.

It's important to note that a low-carb diet is not the same as a low-calorie diet. While some may combine the two approaches, a low-carb diet primarily focuses on macronutrient composition rather than overall calorie restriction.

Health Benefits of Sustained Low-Carb Intake

Adopting a low-carb lifestyle can offer a wide range of health benefits that extend beyond simple weight loss.

By consistently following a low-carb diet, individuals may experience improvements in various aspects of their health, including metabolic syndrome and heart health.

In this section, we'll explore some of the long-term advantages of sustained low-carb intake and how it can contribute to overall well-being.

Woman before and after weight loss

Weight Loss and Beyond

One of the most well-known benefits of low-carb diets is their potential for promoting weight loss.

By reducing the intake of carbohydrates, particularly refined and processed carbs, the body is encouraged to burn stored fat for energy, decreasing body weight and body fat percentage.

However, the benefits of low-carb diets extend far beyond just shedding pounds. Many individuals who adopt a low-carb lifestyle also report improvements in their skin health, with some experiencing a reduction in acne and other skin conditions.

This may be due to the anti-inflammatory effects of a low-carb diet and the elimination of processed foods that can contribute to skin issues.

Reduced Disease Risk

Perhaps one of the most compelling reasons to consider a low-carb diet is its potential to reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

By improving insulin resistance and allowing for better nutrient absorption, a ketogenic diet (a very low-carb, high-fat approach) has been shown to have positive effects on metabolic health.

Long-term adherence to a low-carb diet has been associated with a reduced risk of developing conditions such as type 2 diabetes and dementia. This may be due to the diet's ability to stabilize blood sugar levels, reduce inflammation, and improve brain function.

A 2019 review published in the journal Nutrients found that low-carb diets can be an effective tool for managing and preventing type 2 diabetes, with some studies showing remission of the disease in certain cases.

Navigating Challenges and Misconceptions

While a low-carb diet has numerous benefits, it's important to acknowledge that adopting this lifestyle can come with challenges and misconceptions.

Some individuals may experience side effects, particularly during the initial adaptation phase, while others may have concerns about the diet's impact on their health.

In this section, we'll address some of the common issues and misunderstandings related to low-carb diets and guide how to navigate them successfully.

Managing Side Effects

When first starting a low-carb diet, some individuals may experience side effects such as bad breath, muscle cramps, and fatigue.

These symptoms are often referred to as the "keto flu" and are typically the result of the body adapting to using fat for fuel instead of carbohydrates.

To minimize these side effects, it's essential to stay hydrated, consume adequate electrolytes (such as sodium, potassium, and magnesium), and give your body time to adjust to the new way of eating.

Gradually reducing carbohydrate intake, rather than drastically changing overnight, can also help ease the transition.

The Truth About Carbs and Diabetes

One of the most pervasive misconceptions about low-carb diets is that they can lead to the development of diabetes or ketoacidosis, a dangerous condition characterized by extremely high levels of ketones in the blood.

However, this is not true for healthy individuals following a low-carb diet.

It's crucial to understand the difference between nutritional ketosis, a normal metabolic state achieved through carbohydrate restriction, and diabetic ketoacidosis, which occurs primarily in individuals with type 1 diabetes when insulin is lacking.

As mentioned earlier, low-carb diets are an effective tool for managing and even reversing type 2 diabetes.

By improving insulin sensitivity and stabilizing blood sugar levels, a low-carb approach can help individuals with diabetes better control their condition and reduce their reliance on medication.

Another benefit of low-carb diets is that they can help reduce cravings and hunger, making it easier to stick to the diet long-term. This is likely due to the satiating effects of protein and fat, which can help keep you feeling full and satisfied between meals.

Carb Consequences Unveiled

Embarking on a low-carb diet can yield promising results, but it's crucial to consider the long-term effects. While these diets may initially promote weight loss and metabolic improvements, sustaining them can pose challenges.

Issues like nutrient deficiencies, altered hormone levels, and potential cardiovascular risks can arise over time. However, amidst these considerations, the allure of indulging in delicious alternatives like keto French toast remains.

Finding a balance between the benefits and risks of low-carb diets while savoring tempting treats like keto French toast requires careful navigation and informed choices.


So, what's the verdict on the long-term effects of low carbohydrates in the diet? It's a mixed bag, folks. While cutting carbs can lead to quick weight loss and improved blood sugar control, it's not all rainbows and unicorns.

Low-carb diets can be tough to stick to, and they may have unpleasant side effects like bad breath and constipation. Plus, if you're not careful, you could miss out on important nutrients like fiber and certain vitamins.

The key is to find a balance that works for you. If you decide to go low-carb, ensure you're still getting plenty of healthy fats, proteins, and non-starchy veggies.

And don't be afraid to indulge in a slice of birthday cake every once in a while - life's too short to live without carbs forever!

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