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How to Test for Insulin Resistance

author avatar Dr. Eric Berg 03/08/2024

Insulin resistance can be a cause of metabolic imbalances, weight gain, and the development of type 2 diabetes.

Explore the underlying factors of insulin resistance and its implications on carbohydrate metabolism and understand the signs and symptoms of cellular lack of insulin response. Also, learn how insulin resistance can be diagnosed and discover how a low-carb, high-fat keto diet helps manage and reverse insulin resistance.

Understanding Insulin

Insulin helps maintain healthy blood sugar levels by converting excess carbohydrates into fat, but when this process becomes inefficient, it can lead to diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

Carbohydrates break down into glucose, which triggers insulin release to signal cells to absorb glucose for energy or storage as glycogen or fat, preventing high blood sugar levels. Insulin converts excess carbs into fatty acids, stored primarily in fat cells, serving as an energy reserve, explaining why a high-fat diet contributes to weight gain and obesity.

  • Lipogenesis: Insulin promotes lipogenesis, turning extra carbs into fatty acids stored as triglycerides in fat cells.

  • Fat Storage: Fats are an energy reserve needed during food scarcity or increased physical activity.

  • Insulin's Role in Weight Gain: Consistently consuming more carbs than needed can lead to excess fat storage and weight gain, making low-carb diets like keto popular for weight loss.

Insulin Resistance: The Culprit Behind High Blood Sugar

Insulin resistance occurs when your body's cells become less responsive to insulin, causing a lack of cellular blood sugar uptake and higher-than-normal blood glucose levels.

Causes of Insulin Resistance

  • Poor diet: Eating too many refined carbs, sugars, and unhealthy trans fats can spike blood sugar levels, contributing to insulin resistance.

  • Lack of physical activity: A sedentary lifestyle reduces muscle mass and impairs glucose uptake into cells, increasing insulin production demand.

  • Inflammation: Chronic inflammation has been linked to impaired insulin signaling pathways within cells, contributing to insulin resistance. 

  • Hormonal imbalances: Conditions like PCOS are known risk factors for developing insulin resistance due to their impact on metabolic health.

Insulin Resistance Impairs Carbohydrate Metabolism

Carbs provide energy through glucose molecules that enter our bloodstream after digestion.

When insulin resistance is present, the body struggles to maintain stable blood sugar levels. It produces even more insulin to compensate, leading to persistently elevated insulin levels and high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia).

This vicious cycle can eventually progress into type 2 diabetes if left unaddressed.

Elevated circulating insulin levels stimulate fat storage, making it difficult for those with insulin resistance to keep or achieve a healthy weight.

Adopting effective strategies like the ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting can help improve your body's sensitivity towards its own produced insulin signals and restore optimal carbohydrate metabolism.

Signs and Symptoms of Insulin Resistance

Are you feeling sluggish after eating carbs or experiencing other symptoms that could indicate insulin resistance?

Here are some signs to look out for:

High Triglyceride Levels

Triglyceride levels that are too high can indicate insulin resistance and should be addressed through a blood test.

Elevated LDL Cholesterol

Insulin resistance can also cause your LDL cholesterol levels to rise, specifically the small-dense particles that increase your risk of heart disease.

Get a lipid panel test to check your levels and take steps to improve them.

Carb Intolerance Symptoms

  • Fatigue: Feeling tired after eating carbs could be a sign of insulin resistance.

  • Bloating and Gas: Difficulty digesting carbs can lead to bloating, gas, and other digestive issues.

  • Weight Gain: Insulin resistance can cause weight gain, especially around the belly.

  • Mood Swings: Fluctuating blood sugar levels caused by insulin resistance can lead to mood swings or irritability.

Testing for Insulin Resistance - HOMA IR Test

Want to know how well your body processes carbohydrates? The Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA IR) test can help.

By measuring fasting glucose and insulin levels, this objective test provides crucial information about your degree of insulin resistance.

Measuring fasting glucose and insulin levels together provides a more accurate picture of how efficiently your body processes carbohydrates.

  • Fasting Glucose: The normal range is 70-100 mg/dL. Higher levels may indicate prediabetes or diabetes.

  • Fasting Insulin: The normal range is 5-25 mIU/L. Higher levels suggest reduced sensitivity.

Interpreting HOMA IR Results

HOMA IR calculates the ratio between fasting glucose and fasting insulin using a specific formula: [Fasting Glucose (mg/dL) x Fasting Insulin (mIU/L)] /405.

  1. A score below 1 suggests normal sensitivity toward insulin.

  2. A score between 1 and 2.5 indicates mild insulin resistance.

  3. A score above 2.5 signifies moderate to severe insulin resistance.

By understanding your HOMA IR results, you can take proactive steps towards improving your health through dietary changes like adopting a ketogenic diet or incorporating intermittent fasting into your routine.

Reverse Insulin Resistance with Diet and Lifestyle Changes

By following a ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting, individuals can improve their insulin sensitivity and reverse the effects of insulin resistance.

Keto foods

Ketogenic Diet for Insulin Sensitivity

By limiting carbohydrate intake, the ketogenic diet encourages your body to use fat as its primary energy source, reducing insulin demand and improving insulin sensitivity. 

Intermittent Fasting for Better Blood Sugar Control

Intermittent fasting enhances insulin sensitivity by depleting glycogen stores and forcing your body to rely on stored fat for energy.

Lifestyle Changes for Improved Insulin Sensitivity

  • Exercise: Regular physical activity enhances insulin sensitivity.

  • Healthy Weight: Losing weight can improve your body's response to insulin.

  • Adequate Sleep: Getting enough restorative sleep each night is crucial for glucose metabolism.

  • Stress Management: Relaxation techniques such as deep breathing exercises or stretching can reduce cortisol levels and improve insulin sensitivity.


Managing insulin resistance is crucial for preventing type 2 diabetes. The HOMA IR test is an effective way to measure insulin resistance by evaluating both fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels.

Diet and lifestyle changes like ketogenic and intermittent fasting can help manage or reverse insulin resistance.

Take this quiz now to gain insights into your unique body type and uncover tailored techniques for enhancing your metabolic health and achieving healthy blood sugar regulation.


1. What does an insulin resistance test tell you?

An insulin resistance test, like the HOMA IR test, measures your body's sensitivity to insulin and how well it regulates blood sugar.

2. Which is the most reliable way of assessing insulin resistance?

The Hyperinsulinemic-Euglycemic Clamp technique is the most reliable method, but the HOMA IR test is a widely accepted alternative that offers reliable results through simple blood tests.

3. How do you assess insulin resistance?

Insulin resistance can be assessed by measuring fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels in a blood sample, which are then used to calculate the HOMA IR score.

4. Is an insulin resistance test important?

Testing for insulin resistance is crucial in identifying individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders, allowing for timely intervention with diet and lifestyle changes that can improve overall health outcomes.

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